The highly pathogenic organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis has plagued human civilization for millennia. Driven by poverty, malnutrition and overcrowding, epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) with high rates of morbidity and mortality continue to be observed around the globe . When used in combination, the anti-TB therapeutics developed in the mid-20th century were initially effective and, as rates of active disease fell in the developing world, funding for continued research and development of new TB therapeutics dried up. However, a resurgence of TB fanned by the HIV pandemic and rising rates of drug resistance led to TB being declared a global emergency in 1993. The present sobering reality is that while the standard first-line drug regimen has remained essentially unchanged for a half century, never before has TB been so prevalent .
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